[Overton]Common Phonological Processes

Deletion of Final Consonants - omission of the last consonant in a word (i.e., "gun" becomes "gu").

Initial Voicing - substitution of a voiced consonant for an unvoiced one (i.e., "gey" for "key").

Syllable Reduction - omission of one or more syllables in a multisyllabic word (i.e., "butterfly" becomes "bufly").

Palatal Fronting - production of a palatal consonant (ch, sh, y, j) moves anterior, usually to the alveolar ridge (i.e., "shoe" becomes "sue").

Deaffrication - substitution of another sound for "ch" or "j" (i.e., "sin" for "chin").

Velar Fronting - substitution of a more anterior sound for "k, g", or "ng" (i.e., "key" becomes "tey").

Consonant Harmony - occurs when an earlier sound influences a later one, or vice versa, so that both are produced at a similar place of articulation (i.e., "lellow" for "yellow").

Stridency Deletion - either the omission or substitution of another sound for one of the following: "s, z, sh, ch, j, f, v" (i.e., "sun" becomes "un", "chair" becomes "tair").

Stopping - substitution of a "t, d, p, b, k" or "g" for "s, z, sh, f, v" or "th" (i.e., "zipper" becomes "dipper").

Cluster Simplification - omission of one or more consonant sounds when they occur together or the insertion of the schwa vowel (uh) between them (i.e., "stamp" becomes "tamp"; "black" becomes "buhlack").

Final Devoicing - omission of voicing in syllable-final voiced consonants (i.e., "bed" becomes "bet", "stove" becomes "stofe").

Liquid Simplification - substitution of "w" or "y" for "l" or "r" (i.e., "lake" becomes "yake", "ride" becomes "wide").

Deletion of Initial Consonants - omission of initial consonants (i.e., "house" becomes "ouse").

Backing to Velars - substitution of a "k, g, ng, or h" for another sound (i.e., "drum" becomes "grum").

Glottal Replacement - substitution of a glottal stop (produced by abrupt closure of the vocal folds) for a consonant.

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Last revised: March 24, 2003